Time-In-Cell 2019: A Snapshot of Restrictive Housing Based on a Nationwide Survey of U.S. Prison Systems

Correctional Leaders Association (CLA)
Arthur Liman Center for Public Interest Law at Yale Law School

Time-In-Cell 2019 is the only comprehensive, current national data on the number of prisoners in solitary confinement—or what prison directors call restrictive housing—and the length of time prisoners are housed under these conditions. As of the summer of 2019, an estimated 55,000 to 62,500 prisoners in the United States were held in isolation for an average of 22 hours a day for 15 days. 

This is the fourth national survey of its kind. CLA (formerly the Association of State Correctional Administrators) and the Liman Center launched these longitudinal data collections in 2014. CLA is a national organization representing directors of corrections.

Overview [Presentation Slides]
Overview [Press Release]
Full Report

Published September 14, 2020

Previous Reports

Reforming Restrictive Housing: The 2018 ASCA-Liman Nationwide Survey of Time-in-Cell (2018)

Working to Limit Restrictive Housing: Efforts in Four Jurisdictions to Make Changes (2018)

Aiming to Reduce Time-In-Cell: Reports from Correctional Systems on the Numbers of Prisoners in Restricted Housing and on the Potential of Policy Changes to Bring About Reforms (2016)